The world’s oldest cosmetic face cream, complete with the finger marks of its last user 2,000 years ago, has been found by archaeologists excavating a Roman temple on the banks of London’s River Thames.
Measuring 6 cm by 5 cm, the tightly sealed, cylindrical tin can was opened yesterday at the Museum of London to reveal a pungent-smelling white cream.
“It seems to be very much like an ointment, and it’s got finger marks in the lid … whoever used it last has applied it to something with their fingers and used the lid as a dish to take the ointment out,” museum curator Liz Barham said as she opened the box.
The superbly made canister, now on display at the museum, was made almost entirely of tin, a precious metal at that time. Perhaps a beauty treatment for a fashionable Roman lady or even a face paint used in temple ritual, the cream is currently undergoing scientific analysis.
“We don’t yet know whether the cream was medicinal, cosmetic or entirely ritualistic. We’re lucky in London to have a marshy site where the contents of this completely sealed box must have been preserved very quickly - the metal is hardly corroded at all,” said Nansi Rosenberg, a senior archaeological consultant on the project.
“This is an extraordinary discovery,” Federico Nappo, an expert on ancient Roman cosmetics of Pompeii. “It is likely that the cream contains animal fats. We know that the Romans used donkey’s milk as a treatment for the skin. However, it should not be very difficult to find out the cream’s composition.”
The pot, which appears to have been deliberately hidden, was found at the bottom of a sealed ditch in Southwark, about two miles south of central London.
Placed at the point where three roads meet near the river crossing - Watling St from Dover, Stane St from Chichester and the bridgehead road over the Thames - the site contains the foundations of two Roman-Celtic temples, a guest house, an outdoor area suitable for mass worship, plinths for statues and a stone pillar.
The complex, which last year revealed a stone tablet with the earliest known inscription bearing the Roman name of London, dates to around the mid-2nd century. It is the first religious complex to be found in the capital, rare evidence of organized religion in London 2,000 years ago.
“The analysis and interpretation of the finds has only just begun, and I’ve no doubt there are further discoveries to be made as we piece together the jigsaw puzzle we’ve excavated,” Rosenberg said. “But it already alters our whole perception - Southwark was a major religious focus of the Roman capital.”
why celsius/centigrade is better than fahrenehenheit
easier to spell
all water below 0 is ice. easy and logical
all water above 100 is steam. easy and logical
if it’s 1 degree outside one day and 10 degrees the next you can literally say it’s 10x warmer and you aren’t even exaggerating
why farhenininheniehenhet is better than centigrate/celsius
Except when you’re deep underwater or in a mountain.
Also it wouldn’t be 10 times warmer from 1°C to 10°C because 0°C isn’t the least amount of heat possible; same reason you aren’t 10 times as far away from the center of the earth when you go from 1 foot above sea level to 10 feet above sea level. 10°C isn’t ten times as much warmth as 1°C, it’s about 1.04 times as much warmth. (It is 10 times as far above 0°C, but you could say exactly the same thing about 1°F vs. 10°F then.)
You can have racial discrimination towards a white person, i.e. calling them a “cracka” or insulting them for being white, but that doesn’t mean racism exists against white people.
There has never been a time where an extreme amount of white people were constantly degraded, harassed, abused, and tormented for the specific reason of their skin. I challenge you to find me a time.
Yeah sure, there are people who are racially discriminating towards white people, but they’re acting in a racist manner.
There was a whole period in the US spanning from the late 1800s up to today where POC, Latinos, Middle Easterners, and Asians are harassed and tormented constantly, belittled and treated as if they were the creatures of satan himself, all because they aren’t white.
You even see it when crimes are reported. If a white person were to launch on a killing spree, the first things you always hear are “He was so smart” or “He was mentally unstable” or anything like that. If a POC were to launch an attack in a similar fashion, the first thing you ever hear is ”Criminal” or “Terrorist.”
I could go on and on and on but I’m not going to, but I do challenge you: Find me any extended period of time, or any culture, or any large representation in which white people are discriminated against, tormented and harassed because of their skin tone, or viewed as inferior because of their skin tone, in a large population.You won’t find a single thing.
Well, I doubt it’ll be accepted but the Irish were discriminated against as well in America and England at about the time of the Jim Crow laws; European Jews in WWII were largely white and there’s a lot of hatred going on in the UK right now towards the Polish and also this weird animosity towards ‘gingers’ generally.
Except that the reason ‘white’ is such a big racial group and doesn’t have much of an identity to discriminate against in general is that it tends to be used sweepingly, to refer to ALL whites. There ARE places in the world where POCs are dominant and it’s dangerous to be white. Not British white or American white, but they exist.
I’m not trying to say that racial discrimination is less bad than it is. I’m just saying that sweeping generalisations are almost always wrong and there are no nevers or alwayses. Especially with people. That’s all.
But something to keep in mind is when Irish people were discriminated against in America and England, they literally weren’t considered white, but rather a distinct race; same for European Jews back in that time period (and even today, there are significant numbers of people that would probably say that being ethnically Jewish is distinct from white).
Sometimes I wonder if future civilizations will have archaeological expeditions that delve into the archaic remains of the internet to find out what our era was like. What the hell will they think about us?
Present civilizations already do that, if more on the anthropology or sociology side of things than the archaeology; there’s a treasure trove of information in the Internet Archive, and a lot of scientists have been combing over it for years. It’s similar if not identical, but I remember also reading about work in using word usage patterns over Twitter to determine and even predict the national mood in a given country.
I got tired of people savvying me about the revelations of NSA surveillance and asking why anyone would care about secret, intrusive spying, so I wrote a new Guardian column about it, “The NSA’s Prism: why we should care.”
We’re bad at privacy because the consequences of privacy disclosures are separated by a lot of time and space from the disclosures themselves. It’s like trying to get good at cricket by swinging the bat, closing your eyes before you see where the ball is headed, and then being told, months later, somewhere else, where the ball went. So of course we’re bad at privacy: almost all our privacy disclosures do no harm, and some of them cause grotesque harm, but when this happens, it happens so far away from the disclosure that we can’t learn from it.
You should care about privacy because privacy isn’t secrecy. I know what you do in the toilet, but that doesn’t mean you don’t want to close the door when you go in the stall.
You should care about privacy because if the data says you’ve done something wrong, then the person reading the data will interpret everything else you do through that light. Naked Citizens, a short, free documentary, documents several horrifying cases of police being told by computers that someone might be up to something suspicious, and thereafter interpreting everything they learn about that suspect as evidence of wrongdoing. For example, when a computer programmer named David Mery entered a tube station wearing a jacket in warm weather, an algorithm monitoring the CCTV brought him to the attention of a human operator as someone suspicious. When Mery let a train go by without boarding, the operator decided it was alarming behaviour. The police arrested him, searched him, asked him to explain every scrap of paper in his flat. A doodle consisting of random scribbles was characterised as a map of the tube station. Though he was never convicted of a crime, Mery is still on file as a potential terrorist eight years later, and can’t get a visa to travel abroad. Once a computer ascribes suspiciousness to someone, everything else in that person’s life becomes sinister and inexplicable.
An Englishman, a Frenchman, a Spaniard and a German are all standing watching a street performer do some excellent juggling. The juggler notices that the four gentlemen have a very poor view, so he stands up on a large wooden box and calls out, “Can you all see me now?”
“Yes.” “Oui.” “Sí.” “Ja.”
Took me about ten minutes to finally understand this